The 42nd Sanremo Round Table, jointly organized every year in September by the International Institute of Humanitarian Law and the International Committee of the Red Cross, took place in Sanremo from 4 to 6 September 2019.
On the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the 1949 Geneva Conventions the Round Table addressed the topic “Whither the human in armed conflict? IHL implications of new technology in warfare”.
Cyber warfare, artificial intelligence and other contemporary legal challenges deriving from the use of new technologies in military operations constituted the defining issues of the event.
- Alberto Biancheri, Mayor of Sanremo
- Sebastiano Cardi, Ambassador, Representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Italy
- Fausto Pocar, President, International Institute of Humanitarian Law (IIHL)
- Helen Durham, Director of International Law and Policy, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
- Peter Maurer, President, ICRC (Video message)
“International humanitarian law: changing and unchanging 70 years after the Geneva Conventions”
Yoram Dinstein, Emeritus Professor, University of Tel Aviv; President of the United Nations Association of Israel; Council Member, IIHL
The Geneva Conventions on their 70th anniversary:
IHL and the changing realities in the conduct of hostilities in the past century
- From International to Non-International Armed Conflicts: IHL and the changing realities in the nature of armed conflicts
Gabriella Venturini, President, Italian Branch, International Law Association; Member, IIHL
- A legacy of responding to new means and methods of warfare: the regulation of new weapons under international law
Hitoshi Nasu, Professor of International Law, Exeter University
- From land, to sea, to air – from the trenches to the city: IHL and the changing realities in the conduct of hostilities during the past century
Gloria Gaggioli, Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF) Professor, Law Faculty of the University of Geneva
IHL and the challenges related to cyber warfare
- Casualties caused through computer network attacks? The potential human costs of cyber warfare
Marina Krotofil, Senior Security Engineer, BASF
- The contemporary and future use of cyber technology in warfare
Camille Faure, Deputy Director, Department of Legal Affairs, Ministry of Defence, France
- The use of cyber technology in warfare: which rules does IHL provide and are they sufficient?
Laurent Gisel, Senior Legal Advisor, ICRC
IHL and new technology – How much human control is required by existing rules?
Moderator: Netta Goussac, Legal Advisor, Arms Unit of the Legal Division, ICRC
- Argument that IHL requires significant human control over weapon systems and decisions on the use of force.
Richard Moyes, Managing Director, Article 36
- Argument that IHL does not require significant human control over weapon systems and decisions on the use of force.
Michael Meier, Colonel (retd), Special Assistant for Law of War Matters, Office of the Judge Advocate General, International and Operational Law Division, US Department of Defence, Washington – Member, IIHL
The use of artificial intelligence in warfare
- Artificial intelligence and machine learning: where do we stand and where do we go from here?
Raja Chatila, Institute of Intelligent Systems and Robotics, Sorbonne University – Campus Pierre & Marie Curie
- The contemporary use of – and possible limits for – artificial intelligence in warfare: a military perspective
Sean Moore, Assistant Head, Legal – Development, Concepts and Doctrine Centre at the Ministry of Defence, United Kingdom
- Artificial Intelligence in military decision making: which limits does IHL impose regarding targeting and deprivation of liberty?
Heather Harrison Dinniss, Senior Lecturer, Swedish Defence University
- Presentation of the winning submission to the 2019 Sanremo New Voices in International Humanitarian Law essay competition: “The SKYNET Programme and the Principle of Distinction: Why we should not let Artificial Intelligence lead the way”
Andrea Farrés Jiménez, Humanitarian Policy Intern, Norwegian Refugee Council
IHL and challenges related to outer space warfare
- The military use of outer space: where do we stand?
Simone Davis, Lt. Colonel, Chief, Air and Space Division at Headquarters, US Air Force (USAF)
- Limits imposed by outer space law on military operations in outer space
Elina Morozova, Head of International Legal Service, Intersputnik
- How does IHL apply in outer space and which challenges exist for applying existing rules in outer space
Liang Jie, Associate Professor, National Defence University PLA China
- Military implications of the use of outer space: a European perspective
Jérémie Ayadi, Captain, Legal Advisor, French Joint Space Command, French Ministry of Defence
New technology and urban warfare:
more precise or more destructive?
- Urban warfare in 2035: What realities to expect?
Xavier Labarrière, Lt. Colonel, Operational Legal Advisor, NATO HQ SACT
- New technology and the preparation of urban warfare: what prospects for active and passive precautions?
Susan Escallier, Brigadier General, Head, US Army Legal Services Agency
- Risks in using new technology in urban warfare – and additional steps States should take to avoid civilian casualties
John Amble, Editorial director; Co-director of the Urban Warfare Project, Modern War Institute at West Point
The prospects and pitfalls of digital technology in designing and delivering effective humanitarian responses
- The impact of new technology on the ability of organizations to provide humanitarian assistance
Hovig Etyemezian, Head, UNHCR Innovation, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
- The humanitarian metadata problem: ‘Doing no harm’ in the digital era
Alexandrine Pirlot de Corbion, Strategy Lead, Privacy International
- The use of new technology in humanitarian action: a challenge for data protection and the principle of independence?
Martin Stanley Searle, Associate Research Fellow, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University
The way forward?
A conversation on contemporary initiatives to address the new technology in warfare
Moderator: Cordula Droege, Chief Legal Officer, ICRC
- Kaja Ciglic, Director, Digital Diplomacy, Microsoft
- Thomas Hajnoczi, Ambassador, Director for Disarmament, Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs, Austria
- Helen Durham, Director of International Law and Policy, ICRC
- Fausto Pocar, President, IIHL